Citing websites and web pages
(based on the 6th edition of the APA Publication Manual)
The latest version of the APA Publication Manual changes substantially the way that websites and web pages are cited. Here is what you should do to create a proper citation.
If you are citing an entire website, provide the address of the site within the text of your paper. According to the APA, there is no need to include the site in your reference list. Example:
The APA Style website is a good source of information on using APA style properly (http://www.apastyle.org).
The elements and format necessary for citing a web page in APA style format are similar to those used when citing an article. Finding the necessary information for your citation can sometimes be tricky, and we have tried to provide some tips below. Also, note that the order of the citation may change if certain elements are missing, e.g., there is no author.
Information about the author may be found near the top of the page, or it might be found at the bottom of the page, as is the case in the example below.
Single author: Put the last name first, followed by a comma, followed by the initial of the first name (and the middle name, if available), then a period. Example:
Miller, J. L.
Multiple authors: Put the last name first, followed by a comma, followed by the initial of the first name, then a period. Follow this with a comma and continue the same procedure for the subsequent authors. Before the final author's name put an ampersand (&) followed by the last name, a comma, the initial of the first name, and then a period. Example:
Tannen, D., & Freedle, R. L.
If the web page that you are using does not have an author, begin your citation with the title of the page.
The date the web page was published comes next. This information can often be found at the bottom of the page, as in the examples below.
Provide as much of the date as you can. If you the web page has a month and day of publication, provide them both, by putting the year first, followed by a comma and then the month and day. If the web page does not have a publication date, put n.d. for 'no date.' Examples:
(2010). or (2006, September 7). or (n.d.)
Web page title.
Next comes the title of the web page. The page's title can often be found in the blue title bar at the top of your browser's window.
Only the first word of the title should be capitalized. Also, don't italicize the title or put it in quotations. Example:
The role of the amygdala in agoraphobia.
Finally, include the URL (Uniform Resource Locator) from which you retrieved the page. The URL can be found in the address bar of your browser.
Preface the URL in your citation with the words "Retrieved from." Also, do not put any punctuation after the URL as it may be seen as part of the web address. Example:
Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/agoraphobia/ds00894
Wood, D. (2009, January). Agoraphobia. Retrieved from
Web page with no author or date
Phobias. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://medicalcenter.osu.edu/patientcare
Entry in an online reference work
DeWeese-Boyd, I. (2008, November 25). Self-deception. In E.N. Zalta (Ed.),
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from
When there is no author for a web page, the title moves to the first position of the reference entry:
All 33 Chile miners freed in flawless rescue. (2010, October 13). Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/39625809/ns/world_news-americas/
Cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title or abbreviated title.: ("All 33 Chile Miners," 2010).
Note: Use the full title of the web page if it is short for the parenthetical citation. Articles found on the web, like the example above, are not italicized in the reference entry and are not italicized but enclosed in quotations in the in-text citation, just like a newspaper or magazine article. Reports found on the web would be italicized in the reference list, as in Publication Manual (6th ed.) Examples 31, 32, and 33 on pp. 205–206. They would also be italicized in the in-text citation, just like a book.
These posts on the APA Style blog will also be helpful: