A cover letter can demonstrate to a hiring manager why you are the best fit for a position, so it's worth your time and effort to get it just right. However, it can be challenging to craft an effective cover letter that showcases your skills without making you seem self-important or succumbing to cliches.
To help you stay clear of the most treacherous cover letter pitfalls, Business News Daily asked hiring managers and business owners for the absolute worst thing a candidate can include in his or her cover letter. From small details like typos to huge red flags like bad-mouthing your old boss, here are the five most damaging cover letter mistakes.
1. Highlighting any lack of skills
It's easy to feel vulnerable when applying for a job, especially if you know that you have limited experience with some of the skills the position requires. However, starting off a cover letter by underselling yourself or drawing attention to the skills or knowledge you are lacking is never the way to go.
"I have seen one too many cover letters with the following phrase: 'Although I do not yet have...' If you do not have something, why are you emphasizing it?" said Lavie Margolin, author, consultant and career coach.
Instead, Margolin advised job seekers to focus on writing about existing skills, experiences and talents that will be of interest to the potential employer.
"If you are looking for a job, then you are in the sales business. What you write in your cover letter should most effectively sell the skills, experience and abilities that you do have, as opposed to emphasizing those things that are lacking. Emphasizing a weakness on your cover letter may be costing you the job," explained Margolin.
2. Lack of attention to detail
Sometimes job seekers get so caught up with trying to find the best way to express their big ideas that they forget to pay close attention to the fine details. Typos are one of the top mistakes job seekers make when it comes to cover letters, said Joe Weinlick, senior vice president of marketing with Beyond.
Rigorously proofreading your cover letter will give your great content an opportunity to shine.
"Spell-check is your friend. Use it, but don't rely on it," said Weinlick. "Print out your cover letter, read it from start to finish and make sure there aren't any typos before sending it out. Your cover letter is the first impression you make on a hiring manager — make sure it's a good one."
You can reuse parts of your cover letter when applying for similar positions with different companies. However, failing to update the company information for each letter is an unforgivable offense.
"Nothing will get your cover letter thrown in the recycling bin faster than giving the wrong company name," said Chaz Pitts-Kyser, founder and author of Careeranista.
According to Pitts-Kyser, checking for accuracy includes making sure you have the correct company name and address, specifying the position for which you are applying, and including the name of the hiring manager, if available.
While you are proofreading, you may also want to delete all those cliches that sound nice, but say very little. Instead of using vague words to describe your work ethic or experience, provide specific examples that demonstrate the qualities that you'd like to highlight.
"Don't use buzzwords," said Bob Kovalsky, vice president of North Highland. "Including descriptors such as 'detail-oriented,' 'hardworking,' 'team player' and 'proactive' doesn't tell HR managers anything about your experience."
3. Remaining stuck in the past
Maybe you were let go from your last job or maybe you are just looking for new opportunities. But regardless of the reason for your job search, don't spend the limited space available of your cover letter focusing on your past.
"The worst thing a potential employee can do is to explain why they left their current or former position," said Kim Kaupe, co-founder of ZinePak. "It's like starting out a first date by talking about your ex! I don't want to hear about your past; I want to hear about your now and future, and how you are going to become an asset to my company."
Steering clear of the past is especially important if you had a contentious relationship with an employer.
"Saying that you're looking for a new opportunity because your previous employer was unfair or you had an incompetent boss will only make you look bad," said Tracey Russell, talent acquisition professional for 5-Star Staffing Solutions. "Oftentimes, if this type of negative information is in the cover letter, recruiters won't even look at the resume," explained Russell.
4. Talking money too soon
There is a time and place to discuss salary during the hiring process, but your cover letter isn't it. Lisa Benson, president and CEO of Mary Kraft Staffing & HR Solutions, recommends that job seekers not provide any unsolicited salary information in their cover letter, "unless they are specifically asked to do so, particularly if there is a disparity between what is advertised or indicated in the ad they are responding to."
"No prospective employer wants to hire someone who is only about the money," Benson added.
5. Making it all about you
Another common mistake that applicants make is using their cover letter to boast about their talents without acknowledging how they will use these skills to benefit a perspective employer.
"The worst thing a candidate can do in their cover letter is make it all about themselves and what they're looking for," said Ian Yates, co-founder and managing director of Fitzii. "The best thing to do is focus on why they'll be a great fit, how they'll make a contribution and what they've done, or will do, to support [the organization]."
"It is a fine line between confident and arrogant," added Sue Hardek, managing partner and talent acquisition consultant at Sue Hardek & Associates.
She noted that any candidate should avoid "overselling him or herself, or being boastful about accomplishments and strengths." Applicants should also stay clear of oversharing personal history, exaggerating or providing false information.
Ultimately, the job seekers who do their homework – researching the company, learning about industry trends, and identifying specific ways they can address challenges faced by the business – have a much better shot at setting the right tone with their cover letters.
Additional reporting by Brittney Morgan. Some source interviews were conducted for a previous version of this article.
How to Include Your Contact Information in a Cover Letter
When you write a cover letter or send an email message that includes a cover letter, you will always need to include your contact information. You'll use the same basic template every time to share your contact details — this isn't the time to get creative.
You don’t want to make the recipient have to do any work at all to figure out how to get in touch with you. However, the way you include your contact information will vary based on the method you use to send your cover letter.
Clue Your Reader In
In your cover letter, no matter what contact information you include — street address, phone number, email — indicate to the recipient the most expeditious way to contact you. If you're sending a paper cover letter, for example, you can write, “You can reach me during business hours at the phone number above.”
Or in an email message, you could say, "I look forward to hearing from you — my email address and phone number are in my signature below." A simple sentence in the conclusion of your cover letter will make it clear to employees both where to find your contact information, and the best way to get in touch.
Contact Section Template - Paper Cover Letter
When you are writing a cover letter to mail or to upload to a job board or company website, the first section of your cover letter should include information on how the employer can contact you. If you have contact information for the employer, include that.
Otherwise, just list your information.
For a cover letter printed on paper, put your contact information at the top left. Use single-spacing and a consistent font, formatting it as a block of information that belongs together. On paper, you will always include your full mailing address (after all, you’re including the recipient’s full address as well, since you’re mailing the letter).
Additional contact information should include your phone number and email address.
Leave a space, add the date, and then type the recipient’s name and address, single-spaced. Include both the name of the person you are sending the letter to and that person’s title, as well as the organization name.
Experts strongly recommend doing your research so that you know the name of the person who's receiving the letter. You can use the company website or LinkedIn to try to determine the hiring manager's name. Or, call up the company's main line, and see if the receptionist can help.
If you cannot determine a contact's name, simply leave off the "name" and "title" in the employer contact information section. Instead, you can put a department. (For instance, "Editorial Department" or "Human Resources.") Here’s how the beginning of your letter should look:
Your Contact Information
Your City, State, Zip Code
Your Phone Number
Your Email Address
Employer Contact Information
City, State, Zip Code
Contact Section Template - Email Letter
Email communication is a different story. When you send an email cover letter, you should not include the contact information of the employer.
And instead of listing your own contact information at the top of the message, include it in your signature, after your name.
You can include your full contact information, such as street address, or just your name, email address, and phone number. You might also include relevant links to your social footprint, such as your LinkedIn profile or professional website, if that will provide additional helpful information or add to your stature in the profession that you work.
Here are examples of email signatures:
Email Signature Example
Email Signature with Full Address Example
City, State, Zip
Email Signature with LinkedIn Example
Now that you've got your contact information squared away, the following links will help you write the rest of that cover letter.