Research Papers On Automobile Sector

Automobile Industry Analysis Essay


            The automobile industry is one of the leading industries at the global level. It plays a crucial role in the development of the global economy because of the high revenues and increased customer demands. The automobile industry helps to foster economic development of the country; therefore, it is widely recognized as a major economic sector. The automobile industry consists of multiple companies specialized in car manufacturing, as well as the ones involved in marketing and distribution of automobile products, such as cars, buses, vans, trucks, motorcycles, mopeds and motorized bicycles. The global automobile industry incorporates several large car manufacturers’ blocs that work collaboratively suppliers at the global level.

The major goal of this paper is to provide a detailed analysis of automobile industry that gives a clear description of the industry today and its prospects for the future. Due attention should be paid to the use of the strategy tools and theories, such as Porter’s five forces and PESTEL analysis and other approaches.

Porter’s Five Forces Analysis

  1. Bargaining Power of Suppliers

The bargaining power of suppliers is low for the reason of the availability of multiple suppliers in the auto-parts industry. Nevertheless, due to the growth of the supply system and its specialization, supported by new technological advancements, manufacturers have an opportunity to reject the delivery of materials because of poor quality (Pearlson et al. 39).

  1. Bargaining Power of Customers

The bargaining power of customers is moderate because in the automobile industry, customers need to have enough information about automobile products’ characteristics, as well as other factors that influence their decision making: price, quality, product image, brand, and environmental impact of the product. Many car manufactures produce products with the same characteristics and sell them at the same price.

  1. Rivalry between Existing Players

The rivalry between the car manufacturers is focused on addressing the demands of customers in terms of lower prices, better product differentiation, more effective distribution strategies, and stronger business relationship with supply system. Currently, the existing players in the automobile industry are BMW, Ford, Audi, Honda, Mercedes Benz, Fiat, Lexus, Infiniti, Acura, Toyota, Volkswagen and others.

  1. Threat of Substitutes

The threat of substitutes is moderate because automobile products vary, although they have the same purpose. Due to product differentiation, customers have an opportunity to select products considering such factors as price, quality and design.

  1. Threat of New Entrants

The automobile industry has high level of barriers to entry. It needs specific machinery, facilities, equipment, human resources, technological devices, distribution channels, etc. The automobile industry is attractive to new entrants, but requires them to solve a number of problems, like customer preferences, industry demands, environmental demands, and others. Thus, the threat of new entrants is low.

PESTEL Analysis

Political and legal factors

Political factors have a strong impact on the development and growth of the automobile industry. The production of hybrid vehicles requires more financial support from local governments because of the environment friendliness. The production of new vehicles must comply with the established vehicle emission standards. Governments across the globe should provide financial support to favor the distribution of vehicles with lower CO2 emissions (Geels 67). Besides, taxes and import laws affect the automobile industry growth. In fact, there are some legal requirements that should be met by the car manufacturers, including environmental regulations aimed at reduction CO2 emissions.

Economic factors

The increased prices for cars are associated with the inflation rate and economic crisis. Besides, the industry is dependent on oil prices. The following factors play an important role in the industry’s shifting in supply demands and price elasticity: local government taxes,prices for materials and resources, population growth, buying capacity, types of economic activities, commercial usage of vehicles, fuel economy dependence, and other factors (Orsatoa & Wells 994). The profitability of the automobile industry is related to the financial opportunities of customers.

Socio-cultural factors

Socio-cultural factors that influence the development and growth of the automobile industry include population growth rate, education level, lifestyles, safety issues, cultural differences, and the effects of consumer buying habits, their attitudes toward “green” or ecological automobile products. The automobile industry growth is dependent on the preferences of customers, most of whom need to purchase cars for families. They consider the space available in the car, safety and price.

Technological factors

Technological innovations play a crucial role in the development of the automobile industry. Due to the use of new technologies it is possible to enhance standards of driving. Besides, currently, the automobile industry is experiencing the problem of fuel consumption. The innovation of new cars, which are characterized as environment friendly vehicles, is aimed at reduction of fuel consumption. Besides, technological innovations are aimed at meeting the requirements of customer safety. New seat belts, air bags and other devices help to avoid injuries sustained in collisions. Anti-Brake Systems help to increase the stopping distance even on slippery pavement. The automobile industry needs investments in research and development to ensure that new technologies are useful and meet the demands of customers (Pauwels et al., 142). ). The production of high performance vehicles by car manufactures is increasing due to the benefits provided to customers: higher engine output, more innovative braking and suspension systems and other technical characteristics that guarantee high quality of products.

Environmental factors

There are some environment factors that affect industry development and growth, including fuel economy and air pollution caused by CO2 emissions. Environmental concerns make car manufactures use innovative technologies. The production of environment friendly vehicles, such as hybrid cars and electric vehicles, allows changing customer demands and preferences in the future. The advantages of these vehicles over gasoline cars include low emission and high energy efficiency (Zhuang et al. 137).

SWOT Analysis


  • Evolving industry due to popularity of cars among consumers;
  • Contribution to changes in lifestyles;
  • Product innovations due to new technology support and advancement;
  • Involvement of cheap workforce from the developing countries in car manufacturing (e.g. India, China, Indonesia and other developing countries).


  • Increased competition;
  • Strict regulations;
  • High taxes;
  • Environmental concerns;
  • High costs of research and development opppirtunities.


  • Introduction of fuel efficient cars;
  • The growth of strategic alliances;
  • Changes in customer preferences;
  • Expansion of markets (Pauwels et al. 142).


  • Increased competition;
  • Dependence on fuel prices;
  • High production costs;
  • High electricity costs;
  • Inflation rate;
  • Poor regulation of car markets (Orsatoa & Wells 1006).


            Thus, it is necessary to conclude that currently the automotive industry is experiencing growth. The production and distribution of vehicles in China and other countries with cheap workforce have increased significantly. However, the automobile industry has some problems that require implementation of joint efforts, e.g. environmental, economic problems and technological concerns. The analysis of the automobile industry shows that it is possible to strengthen its growth at the global level. The knowledge of markets should be improved and strong brands should be built to adapt to the changing environment. Because of the large number of players in the automobile industry, the increased competition is the challenge for the industry. Besides, constant fluctuations of fuel prices lead to changes in the prices of cars. Local governments’ regulations affect the industry in some way.

Works Cited

            Geels, Frank W. “The impact of the financial–economic crisis on sustainability transitions: Financial investment, governance and public discourse,” Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 6 (March 2013): 67–95.

            Orsatoa, R. J. & Wells, P. (2007). “U-turn: the rise and demise of the automobile industry,” Journal of Cleaner Production, 15(11–12): 994–1006.

Pauwels, Koen; Silva-Risso, Jorge; Srinivasan, Shuba; Hanssens, Dominique M. (2004). “New Products, Sales Promotions, and Firm Value: The Case of the Automobile Industry,” Journal of Marketing: 68. 4 (2004): 142-156.

           Pearlson, Keri E., Saunders, Carol S. & Galletta, Dennis F. Managing and Using Information Systems, Binder Ready Version: A Strategic Approach. John Wiley & Sons, 2016.

            Zhuang, Ye; Nie, Shida & Guo, Konghui. “A study of semi-active suspension with tuned mass damper,” in The Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks: Proceedings of the 24th Symposium of the International Association for Vehicle System Dynamics (IAVSD 2015), Graz, Austria, 17-21 August 2015. CRC Press, 2016.

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A novel ICE ON/OFF control strategy for hybrid electric bus based on route information

Abstract: ICE ON/OFF control strategy is critical for fuel economy in the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The fuel cumsumption cut off at ICE is at OFF state when the vehicle stops especially at vehicle jams. It significantly profits for more fuel saving. Motor-only drive mode is rarely used in real-time control because of the power system meet the uncertain driver demand. Battery state of charge (SOC) balance also affects ICE ON/OFF control decision. ICE ON/OFF state optimization is still a critical problem that is rarely effectively resolved. Minimum Principle was used in real-time control and has a global optimization in many papers. However, there is no paper to apply this algorithm in ICE ON/OFF control optimization. This paper introduces a novel control method using Minimum Principle to select an appropriate ICE state, which extracts rules from the optimal results applied to real-time control based on predicted route information.

Design harmonization techniques to model vehicle lightweighting across diverse powertrains

Vehicle lightweighting and advanced powertrains, including hybrid electric systems and high efficiency engines, have the potential to increase fuel economy and decrease life cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, the energy and GHG impact over the entire vehicle life cycle is dependent on the energy and emissions required to produce lightweight materials and fuels. Recent work has used life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate diverse vehicles and fuels using a novel design harmonization technique. The current work describes this approach in further detail and provides an example of its application for a moderate lightweighting scenario for an internal combustion vehicle (ICV), hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). This type of apples-to-apples comparison is enabled by functional equivalency metrics, which are defined as part of the design harmonization technique and held constant across all vehicles.

Aerodynamic Analysis of Cooling Airflow for Different Front-End Designs of a Heavy-Duty Cab-over-Engine Truck

This paper deals with the analysis of cooling airflow for two different front-end designs of a heavy truck. The first design is a cab-over-engine (COE) cab; the second is a Soft Nose (SN) cab, which in this case is basically an elongation of the grille area of the COE cab to obtain a smoother shape of the cab. The SN model used in this investigation was extended 200mm from the COE front. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used as the tool for examining the aerodynamic properties of the vehicle models. The configurations were evaluated both with inactive and active heat exchangers, in order to examine the effect of heating the air on the drag co-efficient and also to determine the cooling capacity of the different models. A sub- study was performed where different opening percentages of the grille area was investigated to determine the minimum percentage opening that would be needed to achieve a radiator Top Tank Temperature (TTT) value below a target limit of 100°C.

Temperature Measurements of the Piston Optical Window in a Research Compression Ignition Engine via Thermography and Thermocouples

Internal combustion engines are characterized by high pressure and temperature loads on pistons and cylinders. The heat generated by the combustion process is dissipated by means of water and oil cooling systems. For the best design and optimization of the engine components is necessary to know the components temperature in order to estimate the thermal flows. The purpose of this work is to measure the piston sapphire window temperature in a research optically accessible engine by combining two different techniques: thermocouples measurements and thermography. The first is a well consolidated method that provides a reliable value of temperature. On the other hand, it requires high technical level to be applied because of the use of linkage systems to support the thermocouples wires or even more skills when wireless data transmission is set.

Powertrain Warm-up Optimization Involving Simplified Split Cooling With Integrated Waste Heat Recovery and Reuse.

This study is a continuation of the earlier study published in SAE #2016-01-0647. The earlier test results have proven that the previously proposed engine cooling circuit when combined with exhaust heat recovery and reuse could expedite the warm-up process after cold-start and has improved the fuel economy by up to 4%. With the earlier concept being evolved further, the study discussed in this paper explores further improvements that can be made to the cooling circuit to further expedite the warm-up process. In particular, with some changes to the cooling circuit, the heat recovered from the exhaust gas can be reused right away to heat up the heat exchangers for engine oil, CVT oil and cabin heater before the coolant is recirculated into the engine. Next, the thermostat opening temperature and leakage rate can also be optimized to prolong the heat recirculation period.

Deriving the validation protocol for isolator switches used in Commercial vehicles

Automotive business is more focused towards delivering a highly durable and reliable product at an optimum cost. Anything falling short of customer expectation, will damage the reputation of the manufacturer. To exterminate this, all automotive components undergo stringent testing protocol during the design validation phase. Nevertheless, there are certain factors in the field which are seldom captured during design validation. This project aims at optimizing a validation methodology for Isolator switch based on field usage and conditions. Isolator switch is the main control switch which connects/disconnects the electrical loads from its source; battery. This switch is used in the electrical circuit of the vehicle to prevent the unwanted draining of battery when it is not needed (or) vehicle is in switched off state. In the electrical version of this switch uses electromagnetic coils to short the contacts.

Analysis of the Effects of Diesel Injection Parameters in a Heavy Duty Iso-Butanol/Diesel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Engine

An advanced 3D-CFD computational study was done in order to study the simultaneous effects of diesel injection pressure and single injection timing on the amounts of pollutant emissions and engine performance in a heavy duty, single cylinder iso-butanol/Diesel reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) engine. A reduced chemical n-heptane-n-butanol-PAH mechanism which consists of 76 species and 349 reactions was used to simulate the combustion process of the dual-fuel diesel engine. The baseline operation case was validated with Wang et al. research work and good agreements between in-cylinder mean pressure, the rate of heat release and amounts of pollutant emissions such as NOx, Particulate Matter (PM), unburnt hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) was obtained. Twenty-one different strategies based on two variables (diesel direct injection timing and diesel injection pressure) have been investigated.

Ultra-High Fuel Injection Pressure with Massive EGR to Enable Simultaneous Reduction of Soot and NOx Emissions

In this study both double and triple injection strategies were used with fuel pressures up to 300 and 250 MPa respectively. Tests were conducted at medium load conditions with cooled, high pressure EGR at a ratio of 40% and higher. A four-cylinder production engine, featuring double turbochargers with one variable geometry turbocharger, was tested. The double injection strategy consisted of a 20% close coupled pilot injection while the triple injection strategy introduced a post injection consisting of 10% the total cycle fuel. Results of this study do not indicate an advantage to extreme fuel pressure. The increased air entrainment reduces soot while increasing the premixed burn heat release, mean cylinder temperature and NOx. Compared to the double injection scheme, triple injections achieved much lower soot for the same EGR rate with only a small NOx penalty.

Methodology and Tools to Predict GDI Injector Tip Wetting as Predecessor of Tip Sooting

With upcoming emission regulations particle emissions for GDI engines are challenging engine and injector developers. Despite the introduction of GPFs, engine-out emission should be optimized to avoid extra cost and exhaust backpressure. Engine tests with a state of the art Miller GDI engine showed up to 200% increased particle emissions over the test duration due to injector deposit related diffusion flames. No spray altering deposits have been found inside the injector nozzle. To optimize this tip sooting behavior a tool chain is presented which involves injector multiphase simulations, a spray simulation coupled with a wallfilm model and testing. First the flow inside the injector is analyzed based on a 3D-XRay model. The next step is a Lagrangian spray simulation coupled with a wallfilm module which is used to simulate the fuel impingement on the injector tip and counter-bores.

Development of New 3.5 L V6 Turbocharged Gasoline (Direct Injection) Engine

Toyota Motor Corporation has been developing new platforms and powertrains based on the principles of Toyota New Global Architecture (TNGA) to contribute to better environment and to pursue driving pleasure. Based on this concept, the innovative combustion concept to realize high speed combustion was established in order to achieve both the power performance and the fuel economy at the highest level, and it was introduced to the market in 2017 as 2.5L Naturally Aspirated conventional and Hybrid Vehicle engines for new Camry. For the renewal of Lexus flagship model LS for the first time in 11 years aiming for unparalleled performances in four axes, "power performance" "driving pleasure" "fuel economy" and "quietness", a new 3.5L V6 twin turbo engine was developed.

Study of Gasoline Particulate Matter Index with Refinery Blends

The downsizing and turbocharging of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines to meet future fuel economy standards will make future particulate matter (PM) emissions targets challenging to meet. This is mainly due to the fundamental change in the combustion process in GDI engines compared to conventional port fuel injection (PFI) engines. Auto manufacturers have linked PM emissions to gasoline formulations. Researchers at the Honda Motor Company developed the particulate matter index (PMI) as a measure for gasoline sooting tendency. In this paper, 59 gasoline blend stocks from seven refineries were collected in order to study the compositional effect of real refinery streams on gasoline PMI. 580 gasoline blends were made from the 59 blend stocks. No traditional metrics of fuel quality were found to correlate well with the particulate matter index. Reformate and FCC Naphtha contribute most significantly to the PMI of gasoline.

eFlite Dedicated Hybrid Transmission for Pacifica

Electrified powertrains will play a growing role in meeting global fuel consumption and CO2 requirements. In support of this, FCA has developed its first dedicated hybrid transmission (the eFlite), used in the Chrysler Pacifica PHEV. The Chrysler Pacifica is the industry’s first electrified minivan. The new eFlite hybrid transmission architecture optimizes performance, fuel economy, mass, packaging and NVH. The transmission is an electrically variable FWD transaxle with an input split configuration and incorporates two electric motors, both capable of driving in EV mode. The lubrication and cooling system makes use of two pumps, one electrically operated and one mechanically driven. The Chrysler Pacifica has a 16kWh lithium ion battery and a 3.6-liter Pentastar engine which offers total system power of 260 hp with 84 MPGe, 33 miles of all electric range and 566 miles total driving range.

Experimental and Numerical Study of the DrivAer Model Aerodynamics

The DrivAer model, a detailed generic open source vehicle geometry, was introduced a few years ago and accepted widely from industry and academia for research in the field of automotive aerodynamics. This paper presents the evaluation of the aerodynamic properties of the 25% scale DrivAer model in both, CFD and in wind tunnel experiment. The results not only include aerodynamic drag and lift but also provide detailed investigations of the flow field around the vehicle. In addition to the available geometries of the DrivAer model individual changes were introduced, created by morphing the geometry of the baseline model. A good correlation between CFD and experiment could be achieved by using a CFD setup including the geometry of the wind tunnel test section. The results give insight into the aerodynamics of the DrivAer model and lead to a better understanding of the flow around the vehicle.

Magna’s New Ultralight Door - A Comparative LCA Study of the Lightweight Design as per ISO 14040/44 LCA Standards and CSA Group LCA Guidance Document for Auto Parts

In response to ever more challenging global fuel economy and environmental regulations, automakers will rely on lightweighting to continue to meet the established goals. As “bolt-on” sub-assemblies, closure panels provide a unique opportunity to tailor the vehicle mass to achieve local environmental compliance relative to a global vehicle platform while maintaining equivalent functionality and safety performance. This paper is aimed at communicating the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) study which compares the lightweight auto parts of the new Magna’s Ultralight Door design to the conventional auto parts of the baseline 2016 MY Chrysler 200C 6 cyl, 3.6 L, automatic 9-spd, an ICE vehicle (gasoline fueled) built and driven for 250,000 km in North America. Magna International Inc., in cooperation with the U.S. DOE and partners Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA) US and Grupo Antolin, developed a new ultralight door architecture in 2017.

Investigation of Flow Conditions and Tumble near the Spark Plug in a DI Optical Engine at Ignition

Tumble motion plays a significant role in modern spark-ignition (SI) engines in that it increases mixing of air/fuel for homogeneous combustion and increases flame propagation for higher thermal efficiency and lower combustion variability. Cycle-by-cycle variations in the flow near the spark plug introduce variability to the initial flame kernel development, stretching, and convection and this variability is carried over to the entire combustion process. The design of current direct injection spark ignition (DI SI) engines aim to have a tumble flow in the vicinity of the spark plug at the time of ignition. This work investigates how the flow condition changes in the vicinity of the spark plug throughout the compression stroke via particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) and high speed imaging of a long ignition discharge arc channel and its stretching. The influence of tumble level and of fuel injection timing and fuel injection pressure are studied.

Development and Optimization of Variable flow AC Compressor for commercial vehicles to reduce parasitic losses and improving efficiency of HVAC system.

In modern era of commercial vehicle industry, comfort is one of the major parameter which improves vehicle running time that will lead to fleet owner's profitability. Air conditioning system is one such system whose primary function is to provide the preferred cooling and stabilize cabin temperature in hot climate conditions. Air-conditioned truck cabin not only gives better driver efficiency, along with comfortable environment for driver improving safety as well. AC compressor consumes power from engine directly affecting fuel economy and vehicle performance. With ever increasing demand for energy efficient systems and thermal comfort in automobiles, AC system needs to be optimized to deliver the required cooling performance with minimum AC power consumption. Hence reducing AC power consumption in vehicle is one of the key challenges for climate control engineers.

Using Multiple Photographs and USGS LiDAR to Improve Photogrammetric Accuracy

The accident reconstruction community relies on photogrammetry for taking measurements from photographs. Camera matching, a close-range photogrammetry method, is a particularly useful tool for locating accident scene evidence after time has passed and the evidence is no longer physically visible. In this method, objects within the accident scene that have remained unchanged are used as a reference for locating evidence that is no longer physically available at the scene such as tire marks, gouge marks and vehicle points of rest. Roadway lines, edges of pavement, sidewalks, signs, posts, buildings and other structures are recognizable scene features that, if unchanged between the time of accident and time of analysis, are beneficial to the photogrammetric process. In instances where these scene features are limited or do not exist, achieving accurate photogrammetric solutions can be challenging.

Real-time sequence testing of an automotive electric machine control systems

Recent reports highlighted the increasing demand for new features in road-going vehicles through electronics and software. Electronic control systems are expected to respond to input demands in real-time (circa: milliseconds) to ensure occupant and road user safety and comfort. System complexity and real-time computing requirements create significant challenges in proving the robustness of control systems, here robustness is the degree to which a system can function correctly in the presence of unexpected inputs. Despite the efforts of many vehicle manufacturers, evidence shows that faults still escape to customers incurring large warranty costs. This implies that existing test methods can be ineffective with the primary focus being on requirements validation. Evidence from other industries, e.g. IT and medical, suggests that difficult to find faults manifest due to complex interactions and sequences of events which can cause race conditions.

Correlation and verification of a tractor cab model using statistical energy analysis.

A model of a tractor cab was built using Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) best practices. In this paper, it is shown how this model was correlated using data measured using a volume velocity source in the laboratory. After correlation, the model was excited using acoustic loads measured during tractor operation. It was found that the data predicted by the model is in good agreement with the data measured inside the cabin during this test.It was concluded that SEA can be used as an engineering tool to predict the behavior under many different conditions and can be used to guide the development process.

Lift-off Lengths in an Optical Heavy-Duty Engine Operated at High Load with Low and High Octane Number Fuels

Studies have shown that low temperature combustion (LTC), has the ability to decrease both soot and NOx emissions while maintaining high efficiency. LTC relies on long ignition delay, which is feasible through the use of high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in combination with high octane fuels. High efficiency is possible due to the rapid heat release at autoignition of the premixed or partially premixed fuel and air charge. This rapid combustion limits the load range of LTC, thereby diffusion like combustion is needed at higher loads. Earlier studies have shown that gasoline has the ability to reduce smoke emissions even at high load. This study aims to optically investigate the possible mechanisms behind the reduction of soot in comparison to diesel diffusion combustion, at high load operation (22 bar IMEP$_g$) in a heavy-duty truck engine. Primary reference fuels (PRF) were used as pump fuel surrogates.
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