Thinking Maps® (Innovative Learning Group) integrate thinking skills and mapping techniques. Learning to use these strategies helps students develop good writing skills. These techniques also help students become better learners as they develop life-long skills that help them to study.
Thinking Maps® uses basic mental operations involved in perceiving, processing and evaluating information. They describe, classify, and sequence.
This program is an integral part of the writing program- Write From the Beginning®.
The skills used with Thinking Maps® can be done with paper and pencil and many writing activities begin with a Thinking Map®. To follow are examples using the Thinking Maps® software.
We hope to offer workshops for parents that explain how the writing process is taught to your child using Write from the Beginning® and Thinking Maps®. The workshop is conducted by the classroom teacher and the technology facilitator. After attending the workshop, you will be supplied with a copy of the Thinking Maps® program (Macintosh or Windows version) that you may use at home with your child. Ask your child's teacher for more information.
Circle Maps are tools used to help define a thing or idea. It is used to brainstorm ideas and for showing prior knowledge about a topic. In the center of the circle, use words, numbers, pictures, or any other sign or symbol to represent the object, person, or idea you are trying to understand or define. In the outside circle, write or draw any information that puts this thing in context.
Thinking Map software makes it easy to create a Circle Map. There is no limit to the number of items a student can add to his circle.
Students can also create a Circle Map using Kid Pix. Beginning writers can stamp images in the circle.
Home Tips:Have your child brainstorm ways the family could spend the summer vacation, their favorite books, gifts they could make for a grandparent, their favorite holiday activities.
Bubble Maps are used to describe qualities using adjectives ("sparkle words") and adjective phrases. As a writing tool it enriches students' abilities to identify qualities and use descriptive words.
In the center circle, write the word or thing being described. Write the adjectives or adjective phrases in the outside circles.
Home Tips:Describe a friend, a pet, favorite candy, a game, a stuffed animal.
Double Bubble Map®
When comparing and contrasting, we use Double Bubble Maps. This is similar in concept to a Venn Diagram. Two items being compared are written in the two center circles. Outside bubbles show items that share qualities with only one object - these are contrasting qualities. Center bubbles (that connect to both circles) show similarities between the two items being compared.
Home Hints:Compare and contrast you and your best friend or Mom/Dad, your favorite and least favorite food, characters in a book, two of your teachers, old school and new school.
For classifying and grouping, students learn to use a Tree Map. Things or ideas are sorted into categories or groups. Sometimes new categories are created. On the top line, write the category name. Below that begin writing sub-categories. Below each sub-category write specific members of the group. Some things can go in multiple groups.
Tree Maps are good for studying for tests. Use this map to categorize spelling words according to the skill being taught. Try using a Tree Map when studying Social Studies or Science.
Home Tips:Categorize spelling words when studying for a test, write a shopping list for the grocery store organized by type of food (i.e. produce, dairy, canned goods, treats, etc.).
Brace Maps help learners understand the relationship between a whole physical object and its parts. They are used to analyze the structure of an item. It's like 'directing' on paper.
On the line to the left, write the name of the whole object. On the lines within the first brace to the right, write the major parts of the object, then follow within the next set of braces with the subparts of each major part.
Tree Maps are good for organizing the agenda of a meeting or showing the structure of an organization.
Home Tips:Think about (map out) the parts of a plant, a computer, a continent, country, or state, a unit of measurement.
Flow Maps sequence and order a process. They identify the relationships between stages and substages of an event (or order or numbers, operations, steps, etc.) They can be used to explain the order of events.
In the outside rectangle, write the name for the event or sequence. Rectangles to follow list the steps or events that follow from beginning to end. Smaller rectangles may be written below to list substages or each major stage.
Home Hints:Write a flow map at home is good practice for students to think logically and completely. Have your child make a Flow Map explaining how to make a bed, wash the dishes, make cookies, or tie a shoe. It's fun to give the directions to someone else and see if they can follow them. This is also good practice for recalling the order of events in a story - good review before an AR quiz!
Cause and effect is represented in a Multi-Flow Map. It is a process of sequencing that looks at what caused an event and the results/effects of the event. It helps students analyze a situation by looking at the cause and effect - the 'why' and 'consequences' - good or bad.
In the center rectangle, list the event that occurred. In the rectangle to the left, list the causes of the event. Write the effects/consequences of the event in the rectangles to the right of the center rectangle. If you are studying a system, you will find that there are effects in the system which, in turn, influence initial causes. This circular cause and effect relationship is called a feedback loop.
Home Hints:Conflicts between friends or siblings could be analyzed using a Multi-Flow Map. Pick a hypothetical situation and make two Multi-Flow Maps - one with good consequences and one with bad consequences. Map the rain cycle, the life cycle of an animal or plant.
Seeing analogies is the process of identifying similarities between relationships. These are similar to the 'analogies' found on SATs with one difference being Bridge Maps can have many 'bridges'.
Bridge Maps give students a tool for applying the process of seeing analogies. On the far left, write in the relating factor. The relating factor is the similar phrase that fits both sides of an analogy. On the top and bottom of the left side of the bridge, write in the first pair of things that have this relationship. On the right side of the bridge, write in the second pair of things that have the same relationship. The bridge can continue with more relating factors.
Home Hints:spelling words, habitats or primary food sources for animals, makes and models of cars.
If you have any questions about any of these Thinking Maps, ask your child's teacher or send us an e-mail. We hope to offer a workshop for parents in the use of this software after which you'll be able to have a copy to use at home.
For more information, visit their website at www.thinkingmaps.com.
Почти через двадцать лет, получив степень магистра математики в Университете Джонса Хопкинса и окончив аспирантуру по теории чисел со стипендией Массачусетского технологического института, она представила докторскую диссертацию- Криптографические методы, протоколы и алгоритмы ручного шифрования. По-видимому, ее работу прочел не только научный руководитель, потому что вскоре последовал телефонный звонок, а затем по почте ей доставили авиационный билет от АНБ.
Все, кто имел отношение к криптографии, знали, что о АНБ собраны лучшие криптографические умы нашей планеты. Каждую весну, когда частные фирмы начинают охоту за талантливой молодежью, соблазняя ее неприлично высокими окладами и фондовыми опционами в придачу, АНБ внимательно наблюдает за этим, выделяет наиболее подходящих и удваивает предлагаемую сумму.