Pentatomidae Classification Essay

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Notes on selected species

Unless otherwise noted, distribution information was assembled from Kittle 1980, McPherson 1982, Lee and Barton 1983, Henry and Froeschner 1988, Taylor and McPherson 1989, Chordas et al. 2005, Chordas and Kremers 2009, Taylor and Gill 2009, Swanson 2011).

Aradusapproximatus (Aradidae) is known from Quebec south to Georgia and west to Indiana and Mississippi (Froeschner 1988a). The specimens reported here represent a western range extension.

Aradusduzeei (Aradidae) is known from Quebec and Ontario south to Virginia and west to Missouri (Froeschner 1988a).

Aradusornatus (Aradidae) is known from New York and Pennsylvania, south to Georgia, and west to Indiana (Froeschner 1988a). Taylor and Gill 2009 recently reported the species from Louisiana.

Neuroctenuselongatus (Aradidae) is known from Pennsylvania, North Carolina, the District of Columbia, Ohio, and Indiana (Froeschner 1988a).

Neuroctenuspseudonymus (Aradidae) is known from the District of Columbia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Ohio, Indiana, Texas, and Louisiana (Froeschner 1988a, Taylor and Gill 2009).

Notapictinusaurivilli (Aradidae) is known from Florida, Georgia, and Louisiana (Froeschner 1988a, Taylor and Gill 2009). The specimens reported here represent a northern range extension and the first inland records away from Gulf Coastal states.

Sehiruscinctus (Cydinidae) is widespread in North America and occurs from Newfoundland and Quebec south to Florida, west to California and south into Mexico (Froeschner 1988b). It has been previously recorded from all states surrounding Arkansas and its occurrence in the state is unsurprising.

Nysiusraphanus (Lygaeidae) is widespread, being found in North America from Ontario, south to Florida, west to British Columbia, California, and New Mexico; it is also known from Mexico and the West Indies (Ashlock and Slater 1988). It has been previously recorded from Missouri, Kansas, and Texas and its occurrence in Arkansas is unsurprising.

Preoposinsitivus (Miridae) is widespread in eastern North America, from New Hampshire and Ontario south to Florida, and west to Colorado; it has previously been reported from Missouri (Henry and Wheeler 1988).

Zelustetracanthus (Reduviidae) is widespread in North America and occurs south through Mexico to Paraguay. It has been previously reported from Missouri, Kansas, and Louisiana (Sibley 1951, Swanson 2011).

Kolenetrusplenus (Rhyparochromidae) is found in cool, xeric fields transcontinentaly in northern North America from Quebec and Massachusetts west to British Columbia and Yukon; disjunct populations occur in mountainous areas in North Carolina, Montana, Arizona, Mexico, and Guatemala (Slater and Baranowski 1978, Ashlock and Slater 1988, Scudder 1993, Maw et al. 2000). The specimens reported here likely represent a disjunct population that is restricted to the Ozarks or Interior Highlands.

Xestocorisnitens (Rhyparochromidae) is known from Quebec, Nova Scotia, and Ontario south to Virginia, west to Michigan, Missouri, and Nebraska (Ashlock and Slater 1988, O'Donnell 2007). Scudder 2010 was the first to record it from Arkansas (Logan County). An unpublished specimen of X.nitens, collected in Hempstead County on 5 February 1954 is housed in the University of Arkansas Arthropod Museum and a second unpublished Xestocoris from Pulaski County, which is likely X.nitens, is housed in Texas A&M University Insect Collection (Quinn 2015).

Acalyptasusanae (Tingidae) is known from two specimens collected from Mt. Magazine in Arkansas (Allen et al. 1988). The specimens reported here extend the species range northwest into the Boston Mountains and increase the number of specimens in collections. Nymphs, which are undescribed for this species, were collected, although a formal description of immature lifestages is beyond the scope of this work.

Discussion

The relative abundance of Acalyptasusanae (33 specimens) collected in this study, when compared to the number of previously known specimens (2), is striking. The species is obviously more widespread than previously thought, but it is unclear without additional sampling effort whether it is locally abundant and the sampled site was particularly good habitat or if they are abundant throughtout their range. As the species is a rather distinctive tingid and easily identified, future leaf litter studies in the Interior Highlands and surrounding area should be observent for additional specimens.

Kolenetrusplenus is an interesting species becuase the it has an apparently disjunct range and is restricted to cool, xeric fields in mountainous areas. The specimens reported here are not totally unexpected as the Interior Highlands is the only mountainous region that occurs between the eastern populations in North Carolina and western and southern populations in Arizona and Mexico.

Most of the species newly recorded from Arkansas are widespread in eastern North America and many are known from states that border Arkansas. While their presence in the state is therefore unsurprising, the fact that have have not been previously recorded highlights how under surveyed the state is, especially compared with other biodiversity hotspots.

Pentatomidae are a family of insects belonging to the order Hemiptera, which are generally called stink bugs or shield bugs (members of the sister family Acanthosomatidae are also called "shield bugs").[1][2][3][4] The name Pentatomidae is from the Greek pente meaning five and tomos meaning section, which refers to the five segments of their antennae.[2]

Taxonomy[edit]

There are several subfamilies, of which the Australian Aphylinae is often given family status, but is here retained as a subfamily, following Grazia et al. (2008).[5]

Description[edit]

The scutellum body is typically half of an inch long, green or brown color, usually trapezoidal in shape, giving this family the name "shield bug".[6] The tarsi are 3-segmented. The forewings of stink bugs are called hemelytra, with the basal half thickened while the apex is membranous (as are the hindwings).

Biology[edit]

The stink bug derives its name from an unpleasant scent from a glandular substance released from pores in the thorax when disturbed. The chemicals involved include aldehydes, making the smell similar to that of coriander. In some species, the liquid contains cyanide compounds and a rancid almond scent, used to protect themselves and discourage predators.

The term 'stink bug' is also used for the distantly-related species Boisea trivittata, and for some unrelated insects, including the pinacate beetles in the genus Eleodes.

Economics[edit]

Many stink bugs and shield bugs are considered agricultural pests, because they can grow into large populations that feed on crops (damaging production), and they are resistant to many pesticides. They are a threat to cotton, corn, sorghum, soybeans, native and ornamental trees, shrubs, vines, weeds, and many cultivated crops.[7] However, some genera of Pentatomidae are considered highly beneficial: the anchor bug, which can be distinguished by the red-orange anchor shape on the adult, is a predator of other pest insects, especially the Mexican bean beetle and the Japanese beetle.

Some are commonly eaten in Laos, and are regarded as delicious due to their extremely strong odor. The insects are sometimes pounded together with spices and a seasoning to prepare cheo, a paste mixed with chilies and herbs.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Since recent arrival in the U.S., populations of the brown marmorated stink bug have grown significantly. As of October 2014, brown marmorated stink bugs can be found in 41 out of 50 states within the U.S.[8] In 2016 New Zealand's MPI put out an alert to prevent this invasive species from entering via imported cargo. [9]

European species[edit]

European species within this family include:[10]

  • Acrosternum arabicum Wagner, 1959
  • Acrosternum heegeri Fieber, 1861
  • Acrosternum malickyi Josifov & Heiss, 1989
  • Acrosternum millierei (Mulsant & Rey, 1866)
  • Acrosternum rubescens (Noualhier, 1893)
  • Aelia acuminata (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Aelia albovittata Fieber, 1868
  • Aelia angusta Stehlik, 1976
  • Aelia cognata Fieber, 1868
  • Aelia cribrosa Fieber, 1868
  • Aelia furcula Fieber, 1868
  • Aelia germari Kuster, 1852
  • Aelia klugii Hahn, 1833
  • Aelia notata Rey, 1887
  • Aelia rostrata Boheman, 1852
  • Aelia sibirica Reuter, 1884
  • Aelia virgata (Herrich-Schäffer, 1841)
  • Ancyrosoma leucogrammes (Gmelin, 1790)
  • Andrallus spinidens (Fabricius, 1787)
  • Antheminia absinthii (Wagner, 1952)
  • Antheminia aliena (Reuter, 1891)
  • Antheminia lunulata (Goeze, 1778)
  • Antheminia pusio (Kolenati, 1846)
  • Antheminia varicornis (Jakovlev, 1874)
  • Apodiphus amygdali (Germar, 1817)
  • Arma custos (Fabricius, 1794)
  • Arma insperata Horvath, 1899
  • Asaroticus solskyi Jakovlev, 1873
  • Bagrada abeillei Puton, 1881
  • Bagrada confusa Horvath, 1936
  • Bagrada elegans Puton, 1873
  • Bagrada funerea Horvath, 1901
  • Bagrada hilaris (Burmeister, 1835)
  • Bagrada stolida (Herrich-Schäffer, 1839)
  • Bagrada turcica Horvath, 1936
  • Brachynema cinctum (Fabricius, 1775)
  • Brachynema germarii (Kolenati, 1846)
  • Brachynema purpureomarginatum (Rambur, 1839)
  • Capnoda batesoni Jakovlev, 1889
  • Carpocoris coreanus Distant, 1899
  • Carpocoris fuscispinus (Boheman, 1850)
  • Carpocoris melanocerus (Mulsant & Rey, 1852)
  • Carpocoris pudicus (Poda, 1761)
  • Carpocoris purpureipennis (De Geer, 1773)
  • Chlorochroa juniperina (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Chlorochroa pinicola (Mulsant & Rey, 1852)
  • Chlorochroa reuteriana (Kirkaldy, 1909)
  • Chroantha ornatula (Herrich-Schäffer, 1842)
  • Codophila varia (Fabricius, 1787)
  • Crypsinus angustatus (Baerensprung, 1859)
  • Derula flavoguttata Mulsant & Rey, 1856
  • Dolycoris baccarum (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Dolycoris numidicus Horvath, 1908
  • Dryadocoris apicalis (Herrich-Schäffer, 1842)
  • Dybowskyia reticulata (Dallas, 1851)
  • Dyroderes umbraculatus (Fabricius, 1775)
  • Eudolycoris alluaudi (Noualhier, 1893)
  • Eurydema cyanea (Fieber, 1864)
  • Eurydema dominulus (Scopoli, 1763)
  • Eurydema eckerleini Josifov, 1961
  • Eurydema fieberi Schummel, 1837
  • Eurydema gebleri Kolenati, 1846
  • Eurydema herbacea (Herrich-Schäffer, 1833)
  • Eurydema lundbaldi Lindberg, 1960
  • Eurydema maracandica Oshanin, 1871
  • Eurydema nana Fuente, 1971
  • Eurydema oleracea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Eurydema ornata (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Eurydema rotundicollis (Dohrn, 1860)
  • Eurydema rugulosa (Dohrn, 1860)
  • Eurydema sea Pericart & De la Rosa 2004
  • Eurydema spectabilis Horvath, 1882
  • Eurydema ventralis Kolenati, 1846
  • Eysarcoris aeneus (Scopoli, 1763)
  • Eysarcoris ventralis (Westwood, 1837)
  • Eysarcoris venustissimus (Schrank, 1776)
  • Graphosoma interruptum White, 1839
  • Graphosoma lineatum (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Graphosoma melanoxanthum Horvath, 1903
  • Graphosoma semipunctatum (Fabricius, 1775)
  • Halyomorpha halys (Stål, 1855)
  • Holcogaster fibulata (Germar, 1831)
  • Holcostethus albipes (Fabricius, 1781)
  • Holcostethus evae Ribes, 1988
  • Holcostethus sphacelatus (Fabricius, 1794)
  • Jalla dumosa (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Leprosoma inconspicuum Baerensprung, 1859
  • Leprosoma stali Douglas & Scott, 1868
  • Leprosoma tuberculatum Jakovlev, 1874
  • Macrorhaphis acuta Dallas, 1851
  • Mecidea lindbergi Wagner, 1954
  • Mecidea pallidissima Jensen-Haarup, 1922
  • Menaccarus arenicola (Scholz, 1847)
  • Menaccarus deserticola Jakovlev, 1900
  • Menaccarus dohrnianus (Mulsant & Rey, 1866)
  • Menaccarus turolensis Fuente, 1971
  • Mustha spinosula (Lefèbvre, 1831)
  • Neostrachia bisignata (Walker, 1867)
  • Neottiglossa bifida (A. Costa, 1847)
  • Neottiglossa flavomarginata (Lucas, 1849)
  • Neottiglossa leporina (Herrich-Schäffer, 1830)
  • Neottiglossa lineolata (Mulsant & Rey, 1852)
  • Neottiglossa pusilla (Gmelin, 1790)
  • Nezara viridula (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Palomena formosa Vidal, 1940
  • Palomena prasina (Linnaeus, 1761)
  • Palomena viridissima (Poda, 1761)
  • Pentatoma rufipes (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Peribalus congenitus Putshkov, 1965
  • Peribalus inclusus (Dohrn, 1860)
  • Peribalus strictus (Fabricius, 1803)
  • Perillus bioculatus (Fabricius, 1775)
  • Picromerus bidens (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Picromerus brachypterus Ahmad & Onder, 1990
  • Picromerus conformis (Herrich-Schäffer, 1841)
  • Picromerus nigridens (Fabricius, 1803)
  • Piezodorus lituratus (Fabricius, 1794)
  • Piezodorus punctipes Puton, 1889
  • Piezodorus teretipes (Stål, 1865)
  • Pinthaeus sanguinipes (Fabricius, 1781)
  • Podops annulicornis Jakovlev, 1877
  • Podops calligerus Horvath, 1887
  • Podops curvidens Costa, 1843
  • Podops dilatatus Puton, 1873
  • Podops inunctus (Fabricius, 1775)
  • Podops rectidens Horvath, 1883
  • Putonia torrida Stål, 1872
  • Rhacognathus punctatus (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Rhaphigaster nebulosa (Poda, 1761)
  • Rubiconia intermedia (Wolff, 1811)
  • Schyzops aegyptiaca (Lefèbvre, 1831)
  • Sciocoris angularis Puton, 1889
  • Sciocoris angusticollis Puton, 1895
  • Sciocoris conspurcatus Klug, 1845
  • Sciocoris convexiusculus Puton, 1874
  • Sciocoris cursitans (Fabricius, 1794)
  • Sciocoris deltocephalus Fieber, 1861
  • Sciocoris distinctus Fieber, 1851
  • Sciocoris galiberti Ribaut, 1926
  • Sciocoris helferi Fieber, 1851
  • Sciocoris hoberlandti Wagner, 1954
  • Sciocoris homalonotus Fieber, 1851
  • Sciocoris luteolus Fieber, 1861
  • Sciocoris macrocephalus Fieber, 1851
  • Sciocoris maculatus Fieber, 1851
  • Sciocoris microphthalmus Flor, 1860
  • Sciocoris modestus Horvath, 1903
  • Sciocoris ochraceus Fieber, 1861
  • Sciocoris orientalis Linnavuori, 1960
  • Sciocoris pallens Klug, 1845
  • Sciocoris pentheri Wagner, 1953
  • Sciocoris pictus Wagner, 1959
  • Sciocoris sideritidis Wollaston, 1858
  • Sciocoris sulcatus Fieber, 1851
  • Sciocoris umbrinus (Wolff, 1804)
  • Sciocoriscanariensis Lindberg, 1953
  • Scotinophara sicula (A. Costa, 1841)
  • Scotinophara subalpina (Bergroth, 1893)
  • Stagonomus amoenus (Brullé, 1832)
  • Stagonomus bipunctatus (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Stagonomus devius Seidenstucker, 1965
  • Stagonomus grenieri (Signoret, 1865)
  • Staria lunata (Hahn, 1835)
  • Stenozygum coloratum (Klug, 1845)
  • Sternodontus binodulus Jakovlev, 1893
  • Sternodontus obtusus Mulsant & Rey, 1856
  • Tarisa dimidiatipes Puton, 1874
  • Tarisa elevata Reuter, 1901
  • Tarisa flavescens Amyot & Serville, 1843
  • Tarisa pallescens Jakovlev, 1871
  • Tarisa salsolae Kerzhner, 1964
  • Tarisa subspinosa (Germar, 1839)
  • Tholagmus flavolineatus (Fabricius, 1798)
  • Tholagmus strigatus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1835)
  • Trochiscocoris hemipterus (Jakovlev, 1879)
  • Trochiscocoris rotundatus Horvath, 1895
  • Troilus luridus (Fabricius, 1775)
  • Ventocoris achivus (Horvath, 1889)
  • Ventocoris falcatus (Cyrillus, 1791)
  • Ventocoris fischeri (Herrich-Schäffer, 1851)
  • Ventocoris halophilum (Jakovlev, 1874)
  • Ventocoris modestus (Jakovlev, 1880)
  • Ventocoris philalyssum (Kiritshenko, 1916)
  • Ventocoris ramburi (Horvath, 1908)
  • Ventocoris rusticus (Fabricius, 1781)
  • Ventocoris trigonus (Krynicki, 1871)
  • Vilpianus galii (Wolff, 1802)
  • Zicrona caerulea (Linnaeus, 1758)

References[edit]

External links[edit]

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